#10 - How a Fire Sprinkler Works: Thermal Sensitivity
#10 - How a Fire Sprinkler Works: Thermal Sensitivity
A tiny glass bulb or fusible metal link protects most buildings from fire
Many people assume that fire sprinklers are set off by smoke and/or alarms, but intense heat is really the trigger in most systems. Every sprinkler head is activated separately by a specific temperature in its area – minimizing the potential for costly water damage throughout a building because only the sprinklers needed to put out a fire discharge water.
In fact, the National Fire Sprinkler Association (NFSA) reports that only one or two sprinkler heads activate in 90 percent of structure fires before the flames are extinguished or contained.
In this blog, QRFS takes a look at the different types of heat-sensitive elements in most sprinkler heads and details exactly how they work.
Are you simply looking to buy fire sprinkler heads for your system? View our in-stock selection of commercial pendent, upright, sidewall, and concealed fire sprinklers, or our selection of residential fire sprinklers. Otherwise, read on:
How fire sprinklers are triggered
Nearly every sprinkler is kept closed by either a fusible metal link or a small glass bulb that contains a heat-sensitive liquid. In a typical sprinkler head, a pip cap (also known as a “plug”) is held in place by one of these two trigger mechanisms.
Glass bulbs filled with a glycerin-based liquid are the most common type of trigger. Here’s how they work:
When a blaze ignites, the air directly above it heats rapidly. The hot air is pushed toward the ceiling, walls, or other spots where the sprinkler heads are located. When the air around them reaches a certain temperature – typically 135° F, 155° F, or 250° F (57° C, 68° C, or 121° C) – the liquid inside the bulb expands until the pressure causes the glass to break. In a wet sprinkler system, pressurized water in the sprinkler pipes then forces out the plug and sprays over a deflector plate that disperses it in a uniform pattern throughout the room. The water continues to flow until the main valve is shut or the supply runs out.
The below animation demonstrates a glass-bulb sprinkler deployment:
In a dry sprinkler system, however, the activated sprinkler head causes the air pressure in the pipes to drop, opening a dry pipe valve near the system riser that holds back the water. The water floods the pipes and disperses through the open sprinklers, a process which can take up to 60 seconds. Preaction systems typically go off when a sprinkler’s heat sensitive element is activated and a separate alarm is triggered.
Glass bulbs are most commonly found in two sizes: a 3mm diameter is used in quick response fire sprinklers and a 5mm diameter is used for standard response fire sprinklers. In an average-sized room, a 5mm bulb will usually break within 60 to 90 seconds after it comes in contact with a heat source.
The thinner bulbs in quick response sprinklers break faster, but that doesn’t necessarily make them the best choice for a building. There are many factors to consider before choosing which type of sprinkler fits a given situation, including ceiling height, ambient room temperature, occupancy status, National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) guidelines, and more.
As a general rule, sprinkler systems that prioritize saving lives – a priority that applies to most systems in commercial and residential applications – use quick response sprinklers. Standard response sprinklers are employed where protecting property and containing a fire are major considerations, often in storage occupancies.
Fusible link fire sprinklers mirror the concept of glass bulb sprinklers. But in their case, the glass and liquid are replaced by two metal plates held together by solder with a predetermined melting point.
When the area around the sprinkler head gets hot enough, the solder melts and the two spring arms pull the plates apart. The pip cap, or plug, falls away and the water or pressurized gas (followed by water) it was holding back flows through the sprinkler head.
An exception to these two triggers is found in a deluge sprinkler system, most commonly used to protect highly flammable or hazardous areas where fire can quickly burn out of control. These settings include flammable liquid handling/storage areas, petroleum/chemical plants, and aircraft hangars.
The heat-sensing operating element is missing in deluge systems; all sprinklers connected to the piping remain permanently open. This ensures that water can discharge from all of them at once as soon as an initiating device like a smoke detector activates the system.
Temperature ratings prevent accidental discharges
Automatic sprinklers have different temperature ratings at which their fusible or glass bulb element is expected to break, enabling water to flow onto a fire. The temperature rating closely tracks rising ceiling temperatures, with options ranging from 135° F all the way up to 650° F (57° to 343° C).
Because various residential, commercial, and industrial environments operate at different temperatures, some fire sprinkler heads must be able to resist higher temperatures before activating. It’s essential to match the temperature rating of the sprinkler to the ordinary and maximum expected ceiling temperatures to avoid accidental discharges.
For instance, a fusible link rated between 135° F and 170° F has a maximum ambient temperature rating of 100° F. So, if it is routinely exposed to ambient temperatures higher than 100° F, it is liable to separate and trigger water flow.
How to determine the temperature rating of a fire sprinkler
In most cases, a sprinkler’s temperature rating is stamped on the fusible link or stamped or cast on a visible part of a glass bulb sprinkler’s head. NFPA 13: Standard for the Installation of Sprinkler Systems also calls for automatic sprinklers to use color codes to indicate temperature rating. For glass bulbs, the color of the liquid inside them shows the temperature rating. For fusible link sprinklers, the color code is generally indicated on the frame arms.
From the 2019 Edition of NFPA 13
188.8.131.52 Automatic sprinklers shall have their frame arms, deflector, coating material, or liquid bulb colored in accordance with the requirements of Table 184.108.40.206 or the requirements of 220.127.116.11, 18.104.22.168, 22.214.171.124, or 126.96.36.199.
188.8.131.52 A dot on the top of the deflector, the color of the coating material, or colored frame arms shall be permitted for color identification of corrosion-resistant sprinklers.
184.108.40.206 Color identification shall not be required for ornamental sprinklers such as factory-plated or factory-painted sprinklers or for recessed, flush, or concealed sprinklers.
220.127.116.11 The frame arms of bulb-type sprinklers shall not be required to be color coded.
18.104.22.168 The liquid in bulb-type sprinklers shall be color coded in accordance with Table 22.214.171.124.
This image shows various glass bulbs with easily-identified temperature ratings. Their corresponding temperatures on the Fahrenheit scale are (Top to Bottom) 135°, 155°, 175°, 200°, 285°, and 360°. Source: Wikipedia
The below table itemizes the appropriate color coding for a fusible link (“color code” column) and a glass bulb fire sprinkler:
From the 2019 edition of NFPA 13
An important safety reminder for fire sprinkler triggers
Since fire sprinklers are activated by heat, smoke or dust in the air can’t accidentally set them off. But dust, dirt, or other materials like paint can insulate a fusible link or glass bulb and compromise its performance.
It’s also essential to routinely inspect sprinkler heads for corrosion and debris. If a sprinkler is heavily “loaded” – and industry term for being covered in dust or other material – it must be replaced. If the head is only covered with a light to moderate amount of dust, NFPA states that you can clean the sprinkler head – if you can do it without touching it. To learn how to properly clean a fire sprinkler head, read this.
Also, remember that glass bulbs are fragile; any impact – such as hanging items on sprinkler heads or a repairman accidentally knocking the head – can lead to water flow and very costly damage. Fortunately, there is a way to stop an accidentally activated sprinkler head with the right tool.
Automatic sprinkler systems are the first and most effective line of defense in any building that has them, reducing the death rate from fires by 87% and containing a fire to the room where it started 97% of the time. And contrary to what Hollywood movies portray, fire sprinkler systems don’t deploy all at once.
Simple but effective thermal operating elements hold sprinklers closed until they are triggered by heat – one sprinkler head at a time. This simple, reliable technology means that only the sprinklers necessary to put out a fire are activated, saving the rest of your property from unnecessary damage caused by fire, smoke, heat, or water.
If you have any questions about the use of glass bulbs or fusible links in fire protection systems or need help finding an item for your system, give us a call at 888.361.6662 or email [email protected].